Stuff I have written/presented
Submitted by gwolf on Mon, 03/03/2014 - 13:09
I have just pushed our pseudo-monthly batch of keyring updates to Debian. I am happy to inform you that, while the situation described in Clint Adams' interesting assessment of the state of the Debian keyring (and the quite constructive conversation that followed) still holds, and we still have way too many weak (1024D) keys in the Debian keyring, we got a noticeable effect as a result of said thread: 20 key upgrade requests in somewhat over a one week period! (mostly from DDs, with two from DMs IIRC).
So, for any DD or DM reading this and not following the debian-project list where this thread took place:
As keyring maintainers, we no longer consider 1024D keys to be trustable. We are not yet mass-removing them, because we don't want to hamper the project's work, but we definitively will start being more aggressively deprecating their use. 1024D keys should be seen as brute-force vulnerable nowadays. Please do migrate away from them into stronger keys (4096R recommended) as soon as possible.
If you have a key with not-so-many active DD signatures (with not-so-many ≥ 2) waiting to get it more signed, stop waiting and request the key replacement.
If you do not yet have a 4096R key, create a new one as soon as possible and get some signatures on it. Once ≥2 DDs have signed it, please request us to replace your old key. If you cannot get to meet two DDs in person, please talk to us and we will find out what to do.
Submitted by gwolf on Sat, 02/15/2014 - 11:03
For those of you who didn't yet know it: My mother is a painter. A serious, professional, respected painter. But she sometimes goes to the funny side as well — Of course, with all due professionalism!
So, she gave us this great gift: She took one of our pictures from DebConf12 (from the "Conference Dinner" night), and painted it. Real size even!
So, next time you come to our house, even if we are not around to greet you, we will be glad to welcome you to the Residence!
Submitted by gwolf on Sun, 02/02/2014 - 11:44
Somewhere back in August or September, I pre-ordered a CuBox-i — A nicely finished, completely hackable, and reasonably powerful ARM system, nicely packaged and meant to be used to hack on. A sweet deal!
There are four models (you can see the different models' specs here) — I went for the top one, and bought a CuBox-i4Pro. That means, I have a US$130 nice little box, with 4 ARM7 cores, 2GB RAM, WiFi, and... well, all of its basic goodies and features. For some more details, look at the CuBox-i block diagram.
I got it delivered by early January, and (with no real ARM experience on my side) I finally got to a point where I can, I believe, contribute something to its adoption/usage: How to get a basic Debian system installed and running in it.
The ARM world is quite different to the x86 one: Compatibility is much harder, the computing platform does not self-describe properly, and a kernel must first understand how a specific subarchitecture is before being able to boot on it. Somewhere in the CuBox forums (or was it the IRC channel?) I learnt that the upstream Linux kernel does not yet boot on the i.MX6 chip (although support is rumored to be merged for the 3.14 release), so I am using both a kernel and an uBoot bootloader not built for (or by) Debian people. Besides that, the result I will describe is a kosher Debian install. Yes, I know that my orthodox friends and family will say that 99% kosher is taref... But remember I'm never ever that dogmatic. (yeah, right!)
[update]: Read on if you want to learn the process. If you just want to get the image and start playing with your box, you can go ahead and download it from my people.debian.org space.
Note that there is a prebuilt image you can run if you are so inclined: In the CuBox-i forums and wiki, you will find links to a pre-installed Debian image you can use... But I cannot advise to do so. First, it is IMO quite bloated (you need a 4GB card for a very basic Debian install? Seriously?) Second, it has a whole desktop environment (LXDE, if I recall correctly) and a whole set of packages I will probably not use in this little box. Third, there is a preinstalled user, and that's a no-no (user: debian, password: debian). But, most importantly, fourth: It is a nightly build of the Testing (Jessie) suite... Built back in December. So no, as a Debian Developer, it's not something we should recommend our users to run!
So, in the end and after quite a bit of frustration due to my lack of knowledge, here goes the list of steps I followed:
So, how big is this minimal Debian installed system? I cheated a bit on this, as I had already added emacs and screen to the system, so yours will be a small bit smaller. But anyway — Lets clear our cache of downloaded packages, and see the disk usage information:
So, instead of a 4GB install, we have a 228MB one. Great improvement!
For this first boot, and until you set up a way to automatically (or configure it to be static) determine the network configuration, you can use dhclient eth0 to request an IP address via the wired network port (configuring the wireless network is a bit more involved; I suggest you install the wicd-curses package to help on that regard). With the network working, update the Debian package lists:
# apt-get update Get:1 http://http.debian.net wheezy Release.gpg [1672 B] Get:2 http://http.debian.net wheezy Release [168 kB] Get:3 http://http.debian.net wheezy/main Sources [5956 kB] Get:4 http://http.debian.net wheezy/main armhf Packages [5691 kB] Get:5 http://http.debian.net wheezy/main Translation-en [3849 kB] Fetched 15.7 MB in 1min 27s (180 kB/s) Reading package lists... Done Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree... Done Calculating upgrade... Done 0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Yay, all of Debian is now at your fingertips! Now, lets get it to do something useful, in a most Debianic way!
[note]: I have tried to keep this as true as possible to the real install. I have modified this text every now and then, looking at ways to make it a little bit better. So, excuse me if you find any inconsistencies in the instructions! :)
[update]: I finally followed through the instructions again and produced a downloadable image, where I did all of this work, and you can just download it and play with your CuBox-i! You can download it from my people.debian.org space. You will find there instructions on how to get it installed.
Submitted by gwolf on Thu, 01/23/2014 - 13:34
I am not (yet?) reporting this as a bug as this happened with a several days old session open, and just while I was upgrading my Sid system, after a long time without doing so (probably since before the vacations started... In December 2013). But I cannot avoid sharing this interesting screenshot.
(Hey, and FWIW... Why is the online copy of the Debian policy still in iso-8859-1‽ It's not 1995 anymore...)
[update] Of course, it's the default font, not only the Debian policy. Just as an example, the following text:
Yields the following output:
[update 2] And, of course, after finishing the update process... I got a new version of Iceweasel. Restarted it, and everything is back to normal :-}
Submitted by gwolf on Tue, 01/21/2014 - 21:47
Formally, today is my first day as a student on a formal, scholarized institution — Basically for the first time in almost twenty years!
Yes, those that know me know that I aspire to live the life of academia. I have worked at public universities for almost all of my adult life (between 1997 and 1999 I worked at a local ISP and at a private school), and have had a minor academic position («Técnico Académico») for almost ten years. And not having a proper degree limited me from pursuing anything further.
Then, in early 2010 I presented the written exam. By late 2010, the corresponding oral exam. That allowed me to get my formal diploma in December 2010. By the end of 2011, I requested to be a teacher in the Engineering Faculty of UNAM, and started teaching Operating Systems a year ago, in January 2012.
So, a good advance in the last few years... But I know that if I just sit here, I won't be able to advance my position towards really entering the Sacred Halls of Academia. And there are some rituals I have to comply with. One of those rituals is... Devoting some long time to studying under the formal structures.
Ok, so I'm finally a postgraduate student — I have enrolled in Especialidad en Seguridad Informática y Tecnologías de la Información, a short (one year) postgraduate program in ESIME Culhuacán, of Instituto Politécnico Nacional (a small campus of Mexico's second-largest university).
Some friends have asked me, why am I starting with a Specialization and not a Masters degree. Some simple reasons: Just as when I went to Tijuana in 2010 to do my written exam, once I got and started with the paperwork, I didn't want to let it go — If I postpone it, I will probably lose the push to do it by May-July, when the Masters admission process starts. Also, this specialization can be linked with the masters degree on the same topic given at the same campus. This program is one year long, and the masters two — But having them both takes 2.5 years. So, not such a bad deal after all. And finally, because, after such a long time without being scholarized, I fear not having an easy time getting to grips with the discipline. I can commit to overworking myself for a year — If it's too much for me, I'll just stay with that degree and give up. I expect to like it and continue... But it's also a safe bet :-)
Now, there has to be a downside to picking up this path: Of course, my free time will be harshly reduced. I have reduced my Debian involvement in the last year, as I devoted a huge chunk of my time to teaching and book-writing... This year... We shall see what happens. I can for now only confirm what I have said publicly but inside our team only: I have requested to my peers and to our DPL to step down as a DebConf chair. I love organizing DebConf, but I don't want to be formally committed to a position I just cannot fulfill as I did when I started with it. As for package maintenance, by far most of my packges are team maintained, and those that are not are relatively easy to keep track of. And of course, I'll keep an eye on my keyring-maint duties as well — Will even try to link that work with what I do at school!
Anyway, lets see what comes now!
Submitted by gwolf on Wed, 01/08/2014 - 14:34
Packt Publishing sent me Krzysztof Nikiński's «Instant Haml» to do a short blog review... Thing is, and those who read me know, I cannot write short reviews ;-) So lets see how this goes.
Packt's Instant series
First, as for the format this book follows and the series it fits in: They are very short books. I was the tech reviewer for their «Instant Debian – Build a Web Server», and when I opened it for the first time, I thought I had received only the first chapter. This series' motto is Short | Fast | Focused — so, yes, the books are ~50 pages long, with ample margins and many big screenshots. I told the editors I was quite unsure about the value this kind of publications add, as they are very similar to online tutorials, but given they have so many books in this series (printed and electronic), there must be a market for them. They surely know their business better than me!
And as for the book...
I am a long-time Haml convert/fan; I packaged its Ruby implementation for Debian (and should update it soon :-/ as new versions have appeared), the corresponding Emacs Lisp mode, and I use it for basically all of my static HTML sites and Ruby-based Web systems.
Haml is a great templating language, meant to make dynamic HTML generation leaner and easier. It is a clean and elegant technology, and can clearly sell itself. And the project webpage has very good documentation, ranging from a short tutorial and a full API documentation for people to contribute to the project.
The first part of this book, of course, covers the "why is Haml so great?" part, presenting the basic equivalences with HTML. In my opinion, the book could be structured a bit differently and would generate a stronger following. Why? Because, even given that Haml is greatly benefited from its Ruby integration and has many hooks to be tightly integrated in a Rails workflow, it can also be used by people who don't want to do Ruby.
I have some static websites that are just a bunch of Haml files, compiled by a very simple Makefile and calling the haml command from the shell. I think there would be some value in presenting this invocation before learning how to call it from the Gems environment (i.e. bundle install).
Using Haml as a standalone tool is only presented almost as an appendix ("Using HAML outside of Rails" section). Even more so if the author presents four different static-site solutions (probably more non-programmer-friendly than my trusty Makefile).
Oh, and this little section uses the (old? obsolete?) uppercase HAML notation for the project's name instead of the now-standard Haml.
About the screenshots presented in this first section (and I refer mainly to the scaffolding examples), they are meant to show how easy things are, but have an important stylistic mistake: Terminals with transparency might look cool (I hate using them, but then again I'm a very boring person when it comes to my computer habits ;-) ), but transparencies have no place in a book (be it printed or e-book), as the images appear very uncrisp. In the Kindle, they just seemed dirty — Now that I'm browsing the PDF from my desktop, I see that the screenshot in "Step 1" has a photo of Earth from space behind the terminal, and even worse, in "Step 2" it is shown over a Web page detailing the installation! These elements are just distracting, and the text would be much cleaerer if it were presented typeset just as a regular code fragment. Opening many of those screenshots in the Kindle was plain useless.
It is perfectly clear from this text that the author strongly prefers Sublime Text, sometimes uses TextMate, and has just heard reports that Haml has some support in Vim, Rubymine, Emacs and Coda. Of course, devoting a full page (as it is for the first case) for each editor would be out of proportion for this size of book... I just felt the imbalance too big, specially given that most editors will sport approximately the same feature set.
If the Instant series is about making short books, I would expect them to be loaded with easy to follow content (as they are), but free of repetition. I felt, however, a large chunk of step 1 of the "Quick start" chapter to be repeated with the the first section of the "Top 6 features" chapter. Yes, the second one adds some depth, but very little. Still, in the later parts of this "Top 6 features" chapter, a more thorough explanation could be used for the Filters, Multiline attributes/code/strings and helpers and extensions sections. It seems the author was on a hurry trying to get it finished, as it is barely explained — Explaining a bit more deeply would surely benefit readers.
Reading my review, I'm mostly talking about negative issues. IMO, the book is not excellent, but it is clearly not bad. Specially given it fits very well the format for which it was designed. There are many items that could be fixed, and I hope some of them can be fixed (i.e. the screenshots) before the book goes to print — If I understand Packt's page correctly, it is currently only available as ebook, contrary to most of the Instant series' titles.
Submitted by gwolf on Wed, 01/08/2014 - 12:33
Ok, so I'm back in Mexico!
This year, the best fare I found for travelling to spend the Winter^WSummer season with Regina's family had an oddity: I usually have a layover at either Santiago de Chile or Lima (Perú) of between 45 minutes and 2 hours, clearly less than enough to do anything. But this time, I had a massive 10 hours layover in Santiago. And spending 10 hours in an airport is far from fun. Specially when you have a good group of friends in town!
I visited Chile in 2004 for Encuentro Linux (still before the time I had a digital camera: Those photos are all taken by Martin Michlmayr), and I have stayed in touch with a group of systems administrators since then. So, I mailed the list, and we managed to get eight people to have lunch together. In the order we appear in the photo:
Some of them, even living in the same city, had never met in person before — So, of course, we had a table reserved at the restaurant to the name of Dennis Ritchie. And having had nice, fun, sometimes-technical talks... Well, a tiny bit of his spirit was there. Of course, we can only trust he was there, as no Ouija boards were used and no null pointers were dereferenced (just to make sure not to disturb him).
Victor Hugo and Álvaro took me for a short Santiago city trip before lunch, we had a very nice time. Thanks! :-)
Submitted by gwolf on Mon, 01/06/2014 - 10:06
In 1994/1995, I spent probably the most unique and memorable year of my life with the people of several Zionist youth movements in Israel, working in a kibutz, learning in Jerusalem...
In 1995, after most of my group returned to Mexico, I stuck with the newly arrived South American group of Hashomer Hatzair (plus some affiliates).
We were 18-19. And 18-19 years later, here we are: Fabián (from Buenos Aires) and Fabiana (from Montevideo), living in Buenos Aires, with two kids. Regina (from Paraná) and me (from Mexico), living in Mexico, no kids yet.
Two couples. Three countries. Four cities. And a lovely evening. And the hopes to stay in touch, to meet every year when we come to visit Argentina.
For people in Mexico: Workshop next Wednesday! Video editing from the command line (by Chema Serralde, @joseserralde)
Submitted by gwolf on Thu, 12/05/2013 - 20:56
(Yes, yes... Maybe I should post in Spanish.. But hey, gotta keep consistecy in my blog!)
General, public, open invitation
Are you in Mexico City, or do you plan to be next Wednesday (December 11)?
Are you interested in video edition? In Free Software?
I will have the pleasure to host at home the great Chema Serralde, a good friend, and a multifacetic guru both in the technical and musical areas. He will present a workshop: Video editing from the command line.
I asked Chema for an outline of his talk, but given he is a busy guy, I will basically translate the introduction he prepared for this same material in FSL Vallarta, held two weeks ago.
Everybody is welcome to come for free, no questions asked, no fees collected. I can offer coffee for all, but if you want anything else to eat/drink, you are welcome to bring it.
We do require you to reserve and confirm your place (mail me to my usual mail address). We have limited space, and I must set an absolute quota of 10 participants.
Some people hide their address... Mine is quite publicly known: Av. Copilco 233, just by Parque Hugo Margain, on the Northern edge of UNAM (Metro Copilco).
The course starts at 16:00, and lasts... As long as we make it last ;-)
So, that said... See you there! :-D
[update]: Chema sent me the list of topics he plans to cover. Copy/pasting from his mail, in Spanish:
Submitted by gwolf on Sat, 11/30/2013 - 13:08
Blogging from a phone... first time ever. I don't want to forget some specifics for this :)
I have just completed an exam to try to enter a postgraduate program (I'll talk more about it once it becomes real ). The exam is administered by CENEVAL, the same evaluation agency Where I presented my graduation equivalency exam some years ago - Only this exam is for all of the postgraduate studies on many national universities and is thus basically just a psychometric test.
The exam had 162 questions, all to be filled in a optical reader sheet, on five subjects: mathematical reasoning, Spanish grammar and comprehension, Project management, Computers and technology, And English reading and understanding.
It was all in all a fun exam to take, mostly due to the math reasoning part. But... on the Subject I Know I am an expert, I have to complain (and intend to find a easy to do so formally). First, I spotted two absolute mistakes (and answered based on What I knew others would, but knowing the answer is wrong technically). One was a subtlety, on how and why have hard drives should be defragmented (and part of my quip is that it's an obsolete habit, but besides, the answers were all erroneous), but a second one was... just wrong. It asked on what should not be part of an "Internet link" (can only guess they meant An URL). The 4 options were valid parts of a URL - including one very seldom used by most people, but very often by many of us: the @ sign.
Anyway, answered it, but my other main gripe is that most of the section was in specific use of Office software. Not only In Office-like, which would be bad enough to begin with, but on specific ways of using Mainly Excel And PowerPoint. Syntax issues, or the name of the menu under which to look for specific functions.
Submitted by gwolf on Thu, 11/21/2013 - 11:04
This year, I had slowly taken again running. It's an activity I enjoy, even though I'm far from the condition I had when I did it every day — My maximum was running about 8Km four days a week (ocassionally up to 15Km, say, on weekends)... But I slowly drifted out of it over the last three years. Yes, I have taken it up now and then, but dropped out again after a few weeks.
Well, this year it felt I was getting back in the routine. Not without some gaps, but I had ran most weeks since July at least once, but usually two times. I started slowly, doing about 3Km close to home, but didn't take much to go back to my usual routes inside UNAM, doing a modest average of 4.5-5Km per run, and averaging somewhat over 8Km/h (6.5 min/Km).
But... Well, I cannot relate precisely what happened on this — Exactly a month ago, after a very average run (even a short one, 3.6Km), I had a lower back ache. Didn't pay too much attention to it, but it was strange since the first day, as I often have upper back aches — Never lower.
The pain came and went slowly several times. I kept cycling to work, although not every day. On October 27th, I even took the time to do the Ciclotón, a nice 38Km (including the ~5Km distance from home) around central Mexico City. I enjoyed the ride, even though every stop and re-start of the bike was a bit painful — what hurts is to get off and on the bike: The posture change. But the pain has been almost constantly there. When I stand up, or when I sit down, it's about five minutes until the body gets used to the new position and stops hurting.
Another strange data point: This last weekend (together with a national holiday) we went to a small conference in Guadalajara, and then to visit our friends in Guanajuato. So, we spent 12 hours on the bus there (12‽ Yes, there was an accident on the road, and we could not pass... So many hours were wasted there, and going back to a junction to take an alternative, longer road), then one night in a hotel bed, and two nights in our friends' guest mattresses — which are not precisely luxury-grade. And Sunday night... I had no pain at all!
Came back home, and after only one night back in our bed... I just could not move. I had the strongest pain so far. Could not even walk without some help. We went to the orthopedist a friend recommended, and I was seriously bending my posture: While that part of my posture is usually stable, my right hip was about 2cm higher than the left one, and my shoulders were almost 7cm displaced from my hips!
So... Well, I'm having a cocktail of painkillers and antiinflamatories. The doctor says next week he wants me to have a tomography taken to better understand the causes for this.
And, of course, tomorrow I'm leaving for Festival de Software Libre in Puerto Vallarta. I'm going there by plane, so no big hassle. But the way back, it will be 12 more hours on a bus. I'm... not precisely looking forward to this bus ride :(
Anyway... I sorely miss my bike+running :(
Submitted by gwolf on Sun, 11/10/2013 - 20:46
I'm very happy: I was finally able to present a talk at a Free Software conference in Paraná, Argentina — Regina's hometown. Not only in Paraná, but at the Vieja Usina culture center, half a block away from her parents' house. So, I must doubly thank Laura: First, for letting us know there would be a Free Software conference there, and second, for taking some pictures :-}
What was this conference? Conferencia Regional de Software Libre, organized by Grupo de Usuarios de GNU/Linux de Entre Ríos (GUGLER). Of course, flying to Argentina (and more specifically, to Paraná, which is ~500Km away from the international airport) just for a one day conference was out of the question — So I gave the talk by videoconference. Of course, given we will be travelling for the December vacations to Argentina, I expect to meet in person the GUGLER guys soon.
I gave a single talk, mixing together two different topics: (my very personal take on) the Free Software philosophy and Debian's place in the Free Software universe. I had a very good time giving the talk, and while I was unable to look at my audience, I got reports saying they were happy and interested. I even got some mails from them, which makes me quite happy ;-)
Now, one of the recurring points whenever I talk about Debian: I often tell people that I cannot tell them why they should use Debian instead of other distributions. My years testing every distribution I come across are long gone, and I nowadays am familiar with Debian only. But I also tell them that personally I gain nothing by having more Debian users in the world — What I want to achieve is the next logical step: To have more people contributing to Debian. So, here is a great opportunity for interested people, specifically a group that often has a hard time finding a way to collaborate with Free Software projects.
Today, Paul Tagliamonte published a call for proposals for Debian 8 (Jessie)'s artwork. So, given many people always want to find a way to contribute to Free Software without being a coder, here's a golden opportunity. You can look at the themes sent for Debian 7 as a reference; look also at the technical requirements for your artwork, and... Well, you have until early February to work on it!
Submitted by gwolf on Sun, 11/03/2013 - 12:16
This last Thursday I was able again to lure a good friend of mine into presenting an interesting topic to my students at my Operating Systems class: Sandino Araico, a very well known and very well regarded local security guru, presented several issues regarding memory management. I asked him to present the issues on buffer overflows, as well as possible mitigaion strategies, but of course, to present that topic, he had to walk all over the map of memory management.
A good and interesting class. I was able to film it again, and here it is — Sadly, as I explain to some students who suggested me to put the computer in a different place, the angle and the audio quality are not as good as they could — If I were to move the computer to have a better angle of Sandino, I would lose audio quality.
Being it the eve of Día de Muertos, and having a beutiful mega-altars festival just outside the faculty, the outside noise level was quite high, and... Well, I know Sandino rarely raises his voice, so it was better to locate the computer close to him. Of course, add to it that my hardware is by a long shot far from professional-grade. I just used a very cheapish laptop.
I was a bit skeptical to begin with — I have to recognize I have given this topic quite hastily, as we are getting near the end of semester and there's still a lot of topics to cover. But the students seemed interested in Sandino's presentation, and –once again– I am fully satisfied with my guest's performance.
As always. All of my six guests' presentations (over two semesters) have been great. If I were able to get a guest for each of my classes... I'd even save a lot of class-preparation time! :-}
Oh, but you came here looking for the video, right? Here it is: Memory management and security, by Sandino Araico. October 31, 2013.
Submitted by gwolf on Sun, 10/13/2013 - 21:34
I try to have some guests every now and then to my Operating Systems class. The class is not as practical/interactive as I'd like, and having some people show the students how the subjects I teach are reflected in the real world is, I feel, very useful for them to understand the topics' importance.
The past semester (the first one for me) I had three guests: Chema Serralde, talking about process scheduling and in particular on the importance of real time, from his perspective as a musician, Rolando Cedillo, talking about the early stages of the boot process, and César Yáñez, giving a review of file systems. This semester, there have been two guests so far: Felipe Esquivel, who spoke about parallelism, and used renders with Blender to illustrate the speed gains and limitations (i.e. Amdahl's law), and this last Thursday, I invited again César Yáñez. César spoke about process scheduling, first giving a quite thorough review of what had taken me at least three sessions to go through, and second, giving some in-depth review based on his experience with Haiku OS.
What else was different this time? I told our coordinator in the faculty, and she invited the other teachers of the subject (and attended herself). So, instead of the usual ~25 students, we have ~40 people in the classroom. And one of them, Adolfo, recorded most of César's explanation. Yay!
Of course, I asked Adolfo for a copy of his recording, and recoded it in a format more suitable for Web viewing. Here it is (almost 300MB, Ogg Video, ~95 minutes). I still have the original video file given to me, in an Apple-generated badly-compressed .mov, but at over 1.5GB, it's too much for a Web download. I will try to record future sessions, as they will surely be useful!
Submitted by gwolf on Tue, 10/01/2013 - 15:15
This week's lesson on the «Arte y cultura en circulación: crear y compartir en tiempos digitales» course talks about piracy and the circulation of culture, a topic that over time has been debated over and over. And a topic, yes, that can always lead to interesting discussions.
This time, we are requested to choose one among ten ideas among the media groups' discourse on what piracy is and means for the "cultural industry". There are tons of material written already on several of those ten lines (i.e. piracy disincentivates creativity, or two that can be seen as two faces of the same argument, If a consumer can have free access to cultural products, he will stop spending his money on them and Every time a consumer has access to an illegal copy, the industry loses a sale), and some are quite obvious (i.e. Piracy makes job positions be lost... Just look at the amount of people the unauthorized distribution industry feeds! Or possibly, Piracy is a prosper industry that gives money to people distributing illegal products — Of course, that is true. The problem is, what causes said products to be illegal to begin with? Should they be so?). Some other ideas talk about harsher penalties and ways to punish illegal copying in order to drive actors out of that sector (and into the... void?)
So, I chose item #4: Cultural products have a high cost because their production is complex (and a tag could be made, linking complex with expensive). I think this item can lead to a long discussion as to what does this complexity and cost mean.
Some cultural products do require quite a bit of investment, yes. Others don't. How do content producers make the jump to produce expensive works?
If I am a new programmer/artist/writer/screenplayer/whatever, most likely, my products will be not very complex or expensive. I will start small. And if I excel at my work, somebody will look at me and, in some way, become my patron, my sponsor. Being a sponsor might mean that, based on the results of my good work, I could get hired as a software developer at a large company, or an editorial company would buy the patrimonial rights of my book/music (be it for a fixed fee or for a percentage of sales), or whatever. But the leap is not made quantically — A newcomer to the cultural scene will at first, most likely, have a hard time selling his products.
At first, it takes convincing just getting people to take a shot at looking at your work («Hey, please take a look at my program and tell me what you think about it!», «Would you be interested in listening to my latest song?» — And those two are by far ahead of the first attempts where the interactions would more likely be «Turn off that $#^#!^ computer, it's well past bedtime» or «stop murdering that guitar, I'm having a headache»). Maybe the toughest part is to get people to agree to read/hear your work. And there, you start into a continuum — Selling your CDs while performing on the street, then getting to play to a bar, then getting somebody to want to produce (maybe even "discover"!) you. Publish some short stories in your school magazine, then in a "From our audience" section in a larger magazine, then a collective book, your self-published book, yet-unwritten books by contract... The same story over and over again, in each different field.
Ok, yes, but... This logic succession still leaves space for the Important Producers with the Mighty Big Pockets for the most wanted/largest productions, right? And were unauthorized distribution (piracy) to be the norm (as it currently is, dare I say), wouldn't they stop producing an important portion of cultural works?
I'd be tempted to say so. However, a different actor comes into play. When Mighty Big Pockets comes into play, they no longer worry only about getting money from each cultural creation, but from all derived uses of it. And the cultural creation industry (when seen as an industry) goes very much hand in hand with the advertising, marketing industries — They end up blending with each other.
So, the biggest best sellers will most likely have a hit from illegal copiers. Books are still a great business, but hey — An even better business is (usually) movie making. And when you make a movie out of a great story, you will surely link some advertising into it (or at the very least, push advertising/product pushing campaigns to go after it). And there, illegal distribution actually helps the money circle to grow stronger. In the early 1990s, the link between dinosaurs and carbonated drinks was a top seller (because Pepsi™ was a Jurassic Park® sponsor). Although I have always loathed the madness around the World Cups (and basically anything that involves football of any kind), I can perfectly remember several of the theme songs for most of the world cups played during my lifetime.
So, in short... No. Illegal distribution does marginally little harm to the money income to the cultural business, at any level. And where it does get some direct harm, it increases the money flux given the auxiliary channels.
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